Friday, February 7, 2020
Staffing Models and Strategy - Essay Example These negative responses emanate from the fact that such mangers may not have utilized good staffing models to improve their organizational strategy. Businesses that implement good staffing models will translate these benefits into all aspects of the organization. The most important of all the departments is the financial department. Managers who implement sound staffing models will not waste valuable company resources employing unnecessary employees. This substantially reduces overall costs of the business and may encourage competitive pricing. Such companies can afford to offer special prices, bonuses and discounts because they have minimized their overall operating costs. Consequently, they can still run at a profit. (Druker, 1995) Not only do staffing models reduce overall operating cost within any given company, but they also improve quality. When human resource managers or general managers decide to employ sound staffing strategies, then chances are only the most appropriate employees will be selected for the job. This implies that such employees will commit themselves towards achieving organizational goals and will go a long way in ensuring that such employees perform to their maximum. It is a known fact that overall productivity in any company is directly linked to individual efforts - an aspect that is adequately covered in good staffing models and staffing strategies. Most organizations tend to perform poorly within their respective ... If everyone in an organization is working at his or her optimum, then such an organization is likely to supersede its competitor's performance. Staffing models are also particularly important in ensuring the right balance between specialists and generalists. Repeatedly, many organizations make the mistake of employing too many specialists. Such large levels of employee supply may outstrip demand and cause heavy losses for the company in question. On the other hand, a company with very few specialists is unable to perform certain tasks and functions thus impeding its productivity and overall performance in the market. Therefore, companies need to make sure that the number and quality of specialists and generalists meets organizational needs. Staffing models provide businesses with the framework for rationalizing and balancing the latter mentioned groups. (Michell, 1999) What staffing models and strategy entail Staffing models are a representation of the relationship between staffing costs and time utilization by employees. Additionally, they also indicate the kind of activities that occur within the organization and why employees perform those duties and functions. Staffing models give managers a chance to critically analyze how employees spend their time in the organization. This also acts as a platform for assessing the most effective way of going about organizational duties. Normally, staffing models are depictions of how all the latter issues relate to one another through the following; Reports Graphs Charts Other analytical tools Additionally, some companies may choose to treat these staffing models as tools
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Rome and Han china Essay 1. Roman Republic: The period from 507 to 31 B. C. E. , during which Rome was largely governed by the aristocratic Roman Senate. 2. Roman Senate: A council whose members were the heads of wealthy, landowning families. Originally an advisory body to the early kings, in the era of the Roman Republic the Senate effectively governed the Roman state and the growing empire. Under Senate leadership, Rome conquered an empire of unprecedented extent in the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. In the first century B. C. E.Ã quarrels among powerful and ambitious senators and failure to address social and economic problems led to civil wars and the emergence of the rule of the emperors. 3. Augustus: (63 B. C. E. -14 c. e. ) Honorific name of Octavian, founder of the Roman Principate, the military dictatorship that replaced the failing rule of the Roman Senate. After defeating all rivals, between 31 B. C. E. and 14 C. E. he laid the groundwork for several centuries of stability and prosperity in the Roman Empire. 4. Roman Principate: A term used to characterize Roman government in the first three centuries C. E. , based on the ambiguous title princeps (first citizen) adopted by Augustus to conceal his military dictatorship. 5. pax romana: Literally, Roman peace, it connoted the stability and prosperity that Roman rule brought to the lands of the Roman Empire in the first two centuries C. E. The movement of people and trade goods along Roman roads and safe seas allowed for the spread of cultural practices, technologies, and religious ideas. 6. Romanization: The process by which the Latin language and Roman culture became dominant in the western provinces of the Roman Empire. The Roman government did not actively seek to Romanize the subject peoples, but indigenous peoples in the provinces often chose to Romanize because of the political and economic advantages that it brought, as well as the allure of Roman success. 7. Jesus: (ca. 5 B. C. E. -34 C. E. ) A Jew from Galilee in northern Israel who sought to reform Jewish beliefs and practices. He was executed as a revolutionary by the Romans. Hailed as the Messiah and son of God by his followers, he became the central figure in Christianity, a belief system that developed in the centuries after his death. 8. aqueduct: A conduit, either elevated or under ground, using gravity to carry water from a source to a location-usually a city-that needed it. The Romans built many aqueducts in a period of substantial urbanization. 9. third-century crisis of the Roman Empire: Historians term for the political, military, and economic turmoil that beset the Roman Empire during much of the third century C. E. : frequent changes of ruler, civil wars, barbarian invasions, decline of urban centers, and near-destruction of long-distance commerce and the monetary economy. After 284 C. E. Diocletian restored order by making fundamental changes. 10. Nero: debauched Roman emperor (stepson of the emperor Claudius) who for centuries was blamed for the great fire of Rome in 64 CE. 11. Cicero: was an orator and statesman of Rome and is generally considered the greatest Latin prose stylistÃ¢â¬âwas executed after criticizing Marc Anthony and the other two members of the Second Triumverate. 12. Tacitus: Roman historianÃ¢â¬âgreatest works: The Annals (in which he blames Nero for the 64 CE fire in Rome) and The Histories 10. Constantine: (285-337 C. E. ) Roman emperor (r. 312-337). After reuniting the Roman Empire, he moved the capital to Constantinople and made Christianity a favored religion. 11. Qin: A people and state in the Wei Valley of eastern China that conquered rival states and created the first Chinese empire (221-206 B. C. E. ). The Qin ruler, Shi Huangdi, standardized many features of Chinese society and ruthlessly marshalled subjects for military and construction projects, engendering hostility that led to the fall of his dynasty shortly after his death. The Qin framework was largely taken over by the succeeding Han Empire. 12. Shi Huangdi: Founder of the short-lived Qin dynasty and creator of the Chinese Empire (r. 221-210 B. C. E. ). He is remembered for his ruthless conquests of rival states, standardization of practices, and forcible organization of labor for military and engineering tasks. His tomb, with its army of life-size terracotta soldiers, has been partially excavated. I. Romes Creation of a Mediterranean Empire, 753 B. C. E. -330 C. E. A. Geography and resources 1. Italy and Sicily are at a crossroads of the Mediterranean and serve as a link between Africa and Europe. Rome is at a crossroads of the Italian peninsula. 2. Italys natural resources included navigable rivers, forests, iron, a mild climate, and enough arable land to support a large population of farmers whose surplus product and labor could be exploited by the Roman state. B. A republic of farmers 1. Rome was inhabited at least as early as 1000 B . C. E. According to legend it was ruled by seven kings between 753 B. C. E. and 507 B. C. E. Kingship was eliminated in 507 B. C. E. when representatives of the senatorial class of large landholders overthrew the last king and established a republic. 2. The centers of political power were the two consuls and the Senate. In practice, the Senate made laws and governed. 3. The Roman family consisted of several generations living under the absolute authority of the oldest living male, the paterfamilias. 4. Society was hierarchical. Families and individuals were tied together by patron/client relationships that institutionalized inequality and gave both sides of the relationship reason to cooperate and to support the status quo. 5. Roman women had relatively more freedom than Greek women, but their legal status was still that of a child, subordinate to the paterfamilias or her own or her husbands family. Eventually procedures evolved which made it possible for some women to become independent after the death of their fathers. 6. Romans worshiped a large number of supernatural spirits as well as major gods such as Jupiter and Mars. Proper performance of ritual ensured that the gods continued to favor the Roman state. C. Expansion in Italy and the Mediterranean 1. Rome began to expand, at first slowly and then very rapidly in the third and second centuries B. C. E. until it became a huge Mediterranean empire. Possible explanations for this expansion include greed, aggressiveness, the need for consuls to prove themselves as military commanders during their one year in office, and a constant fear of being attacked. 2. During the first stage of expansion, Rome conquered the rest of Italy (by 290 B. C. E. ). Rome won the support of the people of Italy by granting them Roman citizenship. As citizens, these people then had to provide soldiers for the military. 3. In the next stages of expansion, Rome first defeated Carthage to gain control over the western Mediterranean and Sicily, Sardinia, and Spain (264-202 B. C. E. ). Next, between 200 and 30 B. C. E. Rome defeated the Hellenistic kingdoms to take over the lands of the Eastern Mediterranean. Between 59 and 51 B. C. E. , Gains Julius Caesar conquered the Celts of Gaul. 4. The Romans used local elite groups to administer and tax the various provinces of their rapidly expanding and far-flung empire. A Roman governor, who served a single one- year term in office, supervised the local administrators. This system was inadequate and prone to corruption. D. The failure of the republic 1. As Rome expanded, the social and economic bases of the Roman republic in Italy were undermined by change. While men from independent farming families were forced to devote their time to military service, large landowners bought up their land to create great estates called latifundia. This meant both a decline in Romes source of soldiers and a decline in food production, as latifundia owners preferred to grow cash crops like grapes rather than staple crops such as wheat. 2. Since slave labor was cheap in an expanding empire, Italian peasants, driven off the land and not employed by the latifundia, drifted into the cities where they formed a fractious unemployed underclass. 3. As the independent farming family that had been the traditional source of soldiers disappeared, Roman commanders built their armies from men from the underclass who tended to give their loyalty, not to the Roman state, but to their commander. This led to generals taking control of politics, to civil wars, and finally to the end of the republican system of government. 4. Julius Caesars grandnephew Octavian (also known as Augustus) took power in 31 B. C. E. , reorganized the Roman government, and ruled as a military dictator. After Augustus died, several members of his family succeeded him. However, the position of emperor was not necessarily hereditary: in the end, armies chose emperors. E. An urban empire 1. About 80 percent of the 50 to 60 million people of the Roman Empire were rural farmers, but the empire was administered through and for a network of cities and towns. In this sense, it was an urban empire. Rome had about a million residents, other large cities (Alexandria, Antioch, Carthage) several hundred thousand each, while many Roman towns had populations of several thousand. 2. In Rome, the upper classes lived in elegant, well-built, well-appointed houses; many aristocrats also owned country villas. The poor lived in dark, dank, fire-prone wooden tenements in squalid slums built in the low-lying parts of the city. 3. Provincial towns imitated Rome both in urban planning and in urban administration. The local elite, who served the interests of Rome, dominated town councils. The local elite also served their communities by using their wealth to construct amenities such as aqueducts) baths, theatres, gardens, temples, and other public works and entertainment projects. 4. Rural life in the Roman empire involved lots of hard work and very little entertainment. Rural people had little contact with representatives of the government. By the early centuries C. E. absentee landlords who lived in the cities owned most rural land, while the land was worked by tenant fanners supervised by hired foremen. 5. Manufacture and trade flourished under the pax romana. Grain had to be imported to feed the huge city of Rome. Rome and the Italian towns (and later, provincial centers) exported glass, metalwork, pottery, and other manufactures to the provinces. Romans also imported Chinese silk and Indian and Arabian spices. 6. One of the effects of the Roman Empire was Romanization. In the western part of the Empire, the Latin language, Roman clothing, and the Roman lifestyle were adopted by local people. As time passed, Roman emperors gradually extended Roman citizenship to all free male adult inhabitants of the empire. F. The rise of Christianity 1. Jesus lived in a society marked by resentment against Roman rule, which had inspired the belief that a Messiah would arise to liberate the Jews. When Jesus sought to reform Jewish religious practices, the Jewish authorities in Jerusalem turned him over to the Roman governor for execution. 2. After the execution, Jesus disciples continued to spread his teachings; they also spread their belief that Jesus had been resurrected. At this point, the target of their proselytizing was their fellow Jews. 3. The target of proselytizing changed from Jews to non-Jews in the 40s-70s C. E. First Paul of Tarsus, an Anatolian Jew, discovered that non-Jews (gentiles) were much more receptive to the teachings of Jesus than Jews were. Second, a Jewish revolt in Judaea (66 C. E. ) and the subsequent Roman reconquest destroyed the original Jewish Christian community in Jerusalem. 4. Christianity grew slowly for two centuries, developing a hierarchy of priests and bishops, hammering out a commonly accepted theological doctrine, and resisting the persecution of Roman officials. By the late third century, Christians were a sizeable minority in the Roman Empire. 5. The expansion of Christianity in the Roman empire came at a time when Romans were increasingly dissatisfied with their traditional religion. This dissatisfaction inspired Romans to become interested in a variety of mystery cults and universal creeds that had their origins in the eastern Mediterranean. G. Technology and transformation 1. The Romans were expert military and civil engineers. Among their accomplishments were: bridge-building, ballistic weapons, elevated and underground aqueducts, the use of arches and domes, and the invention of concrete. 2. Following Augustus death, the army was organized primarily for defense. The Rhine-Danube frontier was protected by a string efforts; long walls protected the frontiers of North Africa and Britain. On the eastern frontier, the Romans fought for centuries against the Parthians. Neither side made any significant gains. 3. The state system constructed by Augustus worked well until what historians call Romes third-century crisis. The symptoms of this crisis were frequent change of rulers; raids by German tribesmen from across the Rhine-Danube frontier; and the rise of regional power when Rome seemed unable to guarantee security. 4. Romes economy was undermined by the high cost of defense, debasement of the currency and consequent inflation, a disruption of trade, reversion to a barter economy, disappearance of the municipal aristocracy of the provincial cities, and a movement of population out of the cities and back into the rural areas. 5. The emperor Diocletian (r, 284-305) saved the Roman state by instituting a series of reforms that included price controls and regulations that required certain people to stay in their professions and to train a son to succeed them. Some side effects of these reforms include a flourishing black market and a growing feeling of resentment against the government. 6. Constantine (r. 306-37) converted to Christianity in 337 and patronized the Christian church, thus contributing to the rise of Christianity as the official religion of the empire. Constantine also transferred the capital of the empire from Rome to the eastern city of Byzantium, which he renamed Constantinople. II. The Origins of Imperial China, 221 B. C. E. -220 C. E. (We covered very little of this information) A. Resources and population 1. China is a large region marked by significant ecological, topographical, biological, and climatic diversity. 2. The two most important resources that supported the imperial Chinese state were agricultural production and labor. Agricultural production in China was intensive and was taxed by the government. The most productive agricultural region was the Yangzi Valley, which began to be linked to the centers of political power (Changan and Luoyang) by canals. 3. Both the Qin and the Han governments exploited the labor power of rural China by demanding that peasant families supply men for labor and for service in the military. A periodic census and regularly updated records of land and households enabled officials to collect the proper amount of taxes, labor service, and military service. 4. Throughout antiquity, the Han Chinese people expanded at the expense of other ethnic groups. Han expanded into areas that were suitable for settled agriculture. They did not expand into areas that were suitable only for nomadic economies. B. Hierarchy, obedience, and belief 1. The family was the basic unity of society. The family was conceived of as an unbroken chain of generations including the ancestors as well as the current generations. Ancestors were thought to take an active interest in the affairs of the current generation, and they were routinely consulted, appeased, and venerated. 2. The teachings of Confucius were a fundamental source of values for family, social, and political organization. Confucius regarded hierarchy as natural and placed absolute authority in the hands of the father. Family members were thought of as part of the group, not as individuals. Confucius also believed that people would properly fulfill their roles if they were correctly instructed and imitated good role models. 3. According to the ideals of the upper classes, women were to cook, take care of household chores, respect their parents-in-law, and obey their husbands. Lower-class women may have been less constrained. Marriages were arranged, and a new wife had to prove herself to her husband and to her mother-in-law through hard work, obedience, devotion, and by bearing sons. 4. Chinese believed in a number of nature spirits to whom they sacrificed. Unusual natural phenomena were regarded as ill omens. The landscape was thought to channel the flow of evil and good power, and experts in fengshui (geomancy) were employed to identify the most fortunate location and orientation for buildings and graves. C. The first Chinese empire 1. After the Warring States Period (480-221 B. C. E. ), the state of Qin united China. Factors that enabled Qin to accomplish reunification may include: the ability and ruthlessness of the Qin ruler, Shi Huangdi and his prime minister, Li Si; Qins location in the Wei valley with its predominantly rural population of independent farming households; and Qins experience in mobilizing manpower for irrigation and flood-control projects, which had strengthened the central government. 2. Upon uniting China, the Qin established a strong centralized state on the Legalist model. Shi Huangdi and Li Si suppressed Confucianism, eliminated rival centers of authority, abolished primogeniture and slavery, and constructed a rural economy of free land-owning/tax-paying farmers. They standardized weights and measures, knit the empire together with roads and defended it with a long wall. 3. The oppressive nature of the Qin regime and its exorbitant demands for taxes and labor led to a number of popular rebellions that overthrew the dynasty after the death of Shi Huangdi in210 B. C. E. D. The long reign of the Han (206 B. c. s. -220 C. E. ) 1. Liu Bang, a peasant who defeated all other contestants for control of China, established the Han dynasty. The Han established a political system that drew on both Confucian philosophy and Legalist techniques. 2. After a period of consolidation, the Han went through a period of territorial expansion under Emperor Wu (r. 140-87 B. C. E. ). During the Western Han period (202 B. c. E. -8 C. E. ) the capital was at Changan. During the Eastern Han (23-22 C. E. ) the capital was at Luoyang. 3. Changan was an easily defended walled city with easy access to good arable land. The population in 2 C. E. was 246,000. Other cities and towns imitated the urban planning of Changan. 4. The elite ofChangan lived in lived in elegant multistoried houses arranged on broad, well-planned boulevards. They dressed in fine silks, were connoisseurs of art and literature, and indulged in numerous entertainments. The common people lived in closely packed houses in largely unplanned, winding alleys. 5. The emperor was supreme in the state and in society. He was regarded as the Son of Heaven, the link between heaven and the human world. Emperors were the source of law. But anything that went seriously wrong could be interpreted to mean that the emperor was guilty of misrule and that he was losing the Mandate of Heaven. Emperors lived in seclusion, surrounded by a royal retinue that included wives, family, servants, courtiers, and officials. 6. The central government was run by two chief officials and included a number of functionally specialized ministers. Local officials collected taxes, drafted men for corvee labor and military service, and settled local disputes. Most people had no contact with the central government. 7. Local officials were supplied by a class of moderately wealthy, educated local landowners that historians refer to as the gentry. The gentry adopted Confucianism as their ideology and pursued careers in the civil service. E. Technology and trade 1. In the field of metallurgy, China advanced from bronze to iron by about 500 B. C. E. Rather than make wrought-iron goods (as the Romans did), Chinese ironworkers melted the iron and used molds to make harder and more durable cast-iron and steel tools and weapons. 2. Other technological innovations of the Han period include the crossbow, cavalry, the watermill, and the horse collar. New transportation and communications technology included a road system, courier systems for carrying government communications, and canals. 3. The Han period also saw significant growth in the size and number of urban areas. Somewhere from 10 to 30 percent of the population of Han China lived in towns. 4. Long-distance commerce was a significant part of the Han economy. The most important export was silk, and the most important export route was the Silk Road through Central Asia. The Chinese government sought to control this route by sending armies and colonists to Central Asia. F. Decline of the Han Empire 1. The Han Empires major security problem was the nomadic tribes on its northern border. Nomadic groups were usually small, but during the Han, the Chinese faced a confederacy of nomads called the Xiongnu. China attempted to deal with the Xiongnu threat by strengthening its defenses (particularly its cavalry) and by making more compliant nomads into tributaries. 2. The Han Empire was undermined by a number of factors. First, the expense of defending the northern borders was a tremendous financial burden. Second, nobles and merchants built up large landholdings at the expense of the small farmers. These large landholders were able to resist taxation and became independent of government control. Third, the system of military conscription broke down and the central government had to rely on mercenaries whose loyalty was questionable. 3. These factors compounded by factionalism at court, official corruption, peasant uprisings, and nomadic attacks led to the fall of the dynasty in 220 C. E. China entered a period of political fragmentation that lasted until the late sixth century. III. Imperial Parallels A. Similarities Between the Roman and Han Empires 1. The Han and Roman Empires were similar in respect to their family structure and values, their patterns of land tenure, taxation, and administration, and in their empire building and its consequences for the identity of the conquered areas. 2. Both empires faced common problems in terms of defense, and found their domestic economies undermined by their military expenditures. 3. Both empires were overrun by new peoples who were then deeply influenced by the imperial cultures of Rome and of China. B. Differences Between the Roman and Han Empires 1. In China, the imperial model was revived and the territory of the Han empire re-unified. The former Roman empire was never again reconstituted. 2. Historians have tried to explain this difference by pointing to differences between China and the Roman world in respect to the concept of the individual, the greater degree of social mobility in Rome than in Han China, and the different political ideologies and religions of the two empires. Conclusion A. The Qin and the Han were able to unify China and build an empire rapidly because the basis had already been set in the Zhou and Warring States Periods; Rome constructed its empire slowly and without precedents to draw upon. B. The Han and the Roman empires maintained and administered large territories and populations by virtue of their ability to organize large professional armies and professional bureaucracies. C. Both empires provided long periods of peace and prosperity, but they were undermined by the high cost of defense and by the heavy tax burden, which this put on their people. D. The Han dynasty constructed a political system that would be revived and modified by subsequent dynasties; the Roman empire was never restored.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
No one knows much of the earliest human settlement. They think that much of the settlers came around 10,000 to 12,000 years ago. About the same time the Beltic Sea was formed. People are almost certain that Finland was inhabited before that period. People have also found tools in caves that link back to a hundred thousand years ago. Most of the people that came to Finland came from Russia. The people hunted beavers and elk with stone tools and weaponry. The tools and weaponry are spread out in Finland. The tools and weaponry have been found near or in sites in Southern Finland. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢ve found pottery dating back to the sixth millennium, BC. The pottery marked the start of the late Stone Age. The other name also referring to the late Stone Age is Neolithic period. Finding the ceramics made it easier to identify broad groups of people. It also helped make it clear on how the new people made it to the southern side of Finland. They have guessed that the people that migrated during the ice age are newer than the very first peoples. A lot of the people that migrated came from present-day Estonia. The people that did migrate ended up staying in the northern part of Finland. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s where all the people with less culture stay because the really do not like new comers. They also found that Finland was a prime bronze trader during the time periods 1700 BC to 600 BC. The bronze was also mixed with stone for the Cairns. The bronze period was where Finland was the main provider for most of the bronze trading. During World War 2 FinlandÃ¢â¬â¢s economy was terrible it started later than everyone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s. When Finland gained its independence the GNP per capita became half of BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s. During the nineteenth century the senate of Finla... ...e. The culture was organized to help the children and the older people. Lots of people work in these types of fields. Finnish people are also modest and humble about what they accomplish. Finnish people expect people to be courteous to everyone. One thing in Finland that would get everyone in trouble is waiting for the talker to be done then you can talk to them or ask a question. Interrupting someone in Finland is not tolerable, and is extremely rude. Most people that meet in Finland shake hands, keep eye contact, and always keep a smile. One rule is that if you are greeting a married couple is to greet the wife first. If you are ever invited into a Finns home always arrive on time and do not be late. Always take off your shoes before entering. Call the hostess to see if you have to bring a dish when you go over, and help set up the meal and cleanup the meal.
Monday, January 13, 2020
The first attempt for the new chief executive officer of Stratton Oil Company is to address some of the issues and complaints received for different difficulties with StrattonÃ¢â¬â¢s offshore oil drilling rigs. On his first excursion, he visited a rig off the coast of Africa, dubbed the Voyager 7, and what he discovered is the oil rig is really a small society, separate and distinct from the rest of the world. There are many facts for us to apply in this specific case, there is a very unfair treat between the two different employees in the Voyager 7, the first group are expatriates and the second group are African workers. The condition of living for both groups totally different. The expatriates are treated with many advantages in difference with the African workers. We can make different questions in this case, how an international organization is obligated to treat employees from different countries, what kind of policies are applicable to this case. I would like to say that there is nothing more important than treating everyone equally, this class of Ethical Consideration, is focus on teach us about ethic and moral principles that are applied at any place or organization. Human being is loosing the values, but we have to be ruled by the Word of God and there are principles to use to work according the mercy and love for others, Jesus called us for the sake of others, this is our first mission and I have to consider that we can work at any place in the market but I canÃ¢â¬â¢t forget that first I am a Christian and I have to do everything for the sake of others. This is the only way we can transform a society and transform what is around us.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Beer is one of the oldest alcoholic drinks and has played a role in human history for roughly 8,000 years. Beer is the alcoholic beverage of choice in North America and many other parts around the world. It has shaped the culture of human civilization, social interaction and has had a significant contribution to our economy. In order to get a proper perspective on beer you have to look at three main periods; ancient history (the development period), modernization of beer and its effects, and what role beer plays today and where it is going. Archaeologists have uncovered ancient Babylonian beer recipes engrave on clay tablets as early as 3500 B.C. This early beer was very crude and many people today would probably not consider drinking it today as it had bread chunks and had the consistency similar to porridge. To drink this ancient beer people would consume it using straws to filter out sediment and large chunks. Once Beer started to become more popular and commercialized, the first set of laws regulating it were set in place by the Babylonians. Paragraph 108 in the Ã¢â¬Å"Code of HammurabiÃ¢â¬ stated and if anyone were caught selling beer for cash instead of corn in order to cheat their customers, they would be drowned as a punishment. The law also put restrictions on ordinary women from drinking beer with the exception of priestesses who could consume it freely. These laws date back to 1754 BC and since this date, beer has been regulated by society. Beer, during the BabylonianShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Movie The Beer Wars Essay1654 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTHE BEER WARS DOCUMENTARY On April 17th, 2009, the much-awaited documentary, Beer Wars Documentary, was shown in many cinemas across the United States. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a documentary that discusses the grassroots efforts of the craft beer industry having been filmed similar to a Michael Moore style documentary. 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Jeff Fromm of Forbes claims that Ã¢â¬Å"Bud Light knocked it out of the park when it came to engaging consumers with this campaignRead MoreAl Ahram Beverages1451 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCase Analysis Al Ahram Beverages Company Ã¢â¬Å"2Ã¢â¬ By: Marmina Abdel-Malek 900 00 1809 Fall 09 Ã¢â¬Æ' I- Overview: ABC was a public company originally found in 1897, that has been nationalized in 1963, until it had been privatized in 1997 and acquired by the Luxor Investment group represented by Ahmed el Zayat as a CEO and board chairman. Luxor group is an American investment group focusing on investment more than the business itself. ZayatÃ¢â¬â¢s vision and objectives: Marinating local market dominance and transformingRead MoreThe Great Beer Abandonment : America s Young Drinkers777 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"The great beer abandonment: AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s young drinkers are drinking wine and hard alcohol insteadÃ¢â¬ . In recent years, many young adultsÃ¢â¬â¢ ages 18-29 years old are not drinking as much beer as the same age group twenty years ago. In 1992 over seventy percent of this age said that beer was their beverage of choice. That number has now drop to forty percent. The percentage of hard alcohol preference has risen from thirteen percent to thirty percent. While wine preference has also increased from fifteenRead MoreEssay about Alcoholism1398 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The production of alcohol is the result of the fermentation of plant products such as fruit grains. Gin, Vodka, Whiskey, and other hard liquors, require a further process known as distillation. The active chemical ingredient in b eer, wine, and other alcoholic beverages is ethyl alcohol. Ethyl alcohol is a potentially addictive drug and a depressant of the central nervous system (Kestler 6). nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Alcohol acts as a sedative and as an anesthetic, reducing nerve transmissionsRead MoreAl Ahram Beverages1457 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCase Analysis Al Ahram Beverages Company Ã¢â¬Å"2Ã¢â¬ By: Marmina Abdel-Malek 900 00 1809 Fall 09 Ã¢â¬Æ' I- Overview: ABC was a public company originally found in 1897, that has been nationalized in 1963, until it had been privatized in 1997 and acquired by the Luxor Investment group represented by Ahmed el Zayat as a CEO and board chairman. Luxor group is an American investment group focusing on investment more than the business itself. ZayatÃ¢â¬â¢s vision and objectives: Marinating local market dominance
Friday, December 27, 2019
Acts of genocide have occurred for centuries even though the term genocide did not appear until the twentieth century. In 1948 the United Nations General Assembly passed a law that legally defined genocide and ruled it as an illegal act. According to the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) Article II the definition of genocide is Ã¢â¬Å"any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: Ã¢â" Killing members of the group; Ã¢â" Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; Ã¢â" Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; Ã¢â" Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; Ã¢â" Forcibly transferring children of the group to another groupÃ¢â¬ (Chaulagain). Even with this very clear definition of genocide the United Nations Security Council still proved ineffective in preventing the genocide that occurred in Rwanda between the Hutu and Tutsi people. There are a number of theories as to why the U.N. was so inefficient in preventing the genocide such as : there was little political will to intervene from Western countries, the tragedy which had recently occurred in Somalia, and the overlooking of early warning signs. In this paper I will examine the United Nation Security Council attempts at intervention in Rwanda. I will point out the interventionsShow MoreRelatedThe Rights Of Human Rights1211 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesprotecting human rights to people outside of their nationÃ¢â¬â¢s border depend considerably on the interests of the government, the interactions between the different nations, and the response concluded from the international institution, like the United Nations. As evident through the events in Rwanda, all members of the United Nation Security Council expressed their concerns and sadness about the human rights abuses in Rwanda by the Rwandan government, yet, when debating on the course of action, only a minorityRead MoreRole Of The Security Council And Its Success1349 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe United Nations has a number of different organisations and programmes that operate under the non-governmental organisation. Each of these organisations works to better the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s popu lation and the environment we live in. The United Nations itself has six main bodies which it is governed by and each body focuses on a different aspect of international peace and security. This report will be focusing on the role of the Security Council and its success as a body with regard to maintaining internationalRead MoreThe Outbreak Of The Second World War961 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages With the genocide of Jews, incessant discrimination against race and sexuality, as well aerial bombings in support of territorial expansion, the world turned their devastation into a National Confederation against future catastrophe, the United Nations. Following the creation of the United Nations, attempted hope came in the form of coalitions such as the International Criminal Court, the European Court of Human Rights, The U.N. Human Rights Council and United Nations Security Council. The InstitutionsRead MoreHistory Of Westminster Students At Model United Nations723 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages18-21, the students were tasked with representing the United States of America, Guam, and the Maldives in the American Model United Nations conference in Chicago, Illinois. The aim for the delegates at the conference is to accurately represent the foreign policy of their nation in one of several committees and councils modeled after the actual United Nations in New York City. The committees ranged in purview from the United Nations Security Council to the Conference of the States Parties of the OrganizationRead MoreHumanitarian Intervention: Calling on the United Nations for Help1065 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHumanitarian Intervention: Calling on the United Nations for Help The United Nations is an international organization that fights for world peace, and strives to control international law, international security, economic development, social progress, and human rights. In the United NationÃ¢â¬â¢s preamble, it states the organization is Ã¢â¬Å"determined to save succeeding generations from the scourge of warÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom.Ã¢â¬ However, the U.NRead MoreGenocide in Srebrenica and the Birth of R2P1025 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGenocide in Srebrenica and the Birth of R2P In 1995, three years of systematic ethnic cleansing by the Bosnian Serb forces culminated in the town of Srebrenica with the androcide of over 8,000 Bosnian Muslims. The Dutch peacekeepers from the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR), charged with protecting the safe area, were ill-equipped to deal with the Serb takeover and watched as women were raped, children were murdered, and men and boys were gunned down. In one of the worst acts of genocideRead MorePurposes And Principle Of Un Charter Essay1646 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesatrocity and genocide. The responsibility of international community is mentioned in the third pillar of Ã¢â¬ËResponsibility to ProtectÃ¢â¬â¢: The international community has a responsibility to use appropriate diplomatic, humanitarian and other means to protect populations from these crimes. If a State is manifestly failing to protect its populations, the international community must be prepared to take collective action to protect populations, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations. (UN, 2015)Read MoreIntervention Of The Un Security Council947 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbehest of the UN Security Council. Authorization for the use of force conducted by peacekeepers have been granted more frequently, and in particular the method of peacekeeping operations have been reorganized to relinquish the root causes of the instability within a nation that is riddled with political or economic turbulence. The Brahimi Report was a report of the panel on the United Nations Peace Operations in the year 2000 highlighting on the United Nations failure to prevent genocide in Rwanda andRead MoreThe Syrian Civil War and UNÃ¢â¬â¢s Failure to Solve It940 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbranch of the United Nations. U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and USSR Premier Joseph Stalin secured three permanent seats on the United Nations Security Council.[ii] At the United Nations Conference on International Organization in April-June 1945, the five permanent seats of the UNSC were finalized along with the Charter of the United Nations.[iii] The main argument for accepting the veto rule was, Ã¢â¬Å"it was unconceivable that the United Nations should undertakeRead MoreRwandan Genocide: The United States, France and the Failure of the UN Security Council. Between the3000 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesRwandan Genocide: The United States, France and the Failure of the UN Security Council. Between the months of April and July in 1994 approximately one million people were killed in Rwanda. There are three ethnic groups in Rwanda, Hutu, Tutsi, and Aboriginal Twa. The genocide occurred between two different groups, the Hutu and Tutsi people. The Hutu composed close to 85% of the population while the minority Tutsi people make up approximately 14% with the Twa people composing the remaining 1%. The
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa Today, both anorexia and bulimia are the most common eating disorders and affect almost 15 percent of American teenagers. Eating disorders are fifteen times more likely to occur in adolescent girls than adolescent boys. They can be fatal and thousands die from every year but this is one mental illness that can be beaten. Anorexia is increasing more rapidly in developed countries than in underdeveloped countries. Bulimia is becoming the more common type of eating disorder among teens. It is difficult to diagnose because many bulimics are deeply ashamed of their rituals and few share their problems with close friends (4). If these two eating disorders are becoming more and more widespread around the worldÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Losing the insulated layer has consequences such as sensitivity to temperature, dry skin, brittle hair, vitamin deficiency, heart rate slows, and blood pressure falling due to the fact that the body maybe adjusting to the loss of energy intake (1). This behavior has biochemical disturbances as well, which have more serious implications. The main disturbances are dehydration and changes in the levels of some electrolytes in the blood. Potassium and chloride fall causing the blood to become alkaline producing a metabolic alkalosis. Low levels of potassium and dehydration cause weakness and fatigue. Low body potassium and alkalosis can cause irregular heartbeat and alterations in the electro-cardiogram. (1) An anorexics biggest fear is becoming overweight and continue to think they are overweight even after they become extremely thin, are very ill or near death. Often they will develop strange eating habits such as refusing to eat in front of other people. Sometimes the individuals will prepare big meals for others while refusing to eat any of it (5). The goal for an anorexic is to find ways to avoid eating food and exercising for long hours in order to keep the pounds off. Bulimia is known as the binge-purge syndrome and was once considered to be in the same category of anorexia until recently. This syndrome mostly occurs in females starting in their late teens and who say that episodes of bingeShow MoreRelatedAnorexia Nervosa And Bulimia Nervosa1452 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagestwo major types of eating disorders are Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa. One of the descriptions of anorexia nervosa was during the 12th and 13th centuries. A woman, Saint Catherine of Siena, ceased her intake of food for a spiritual denial of herself. During the 16th century people who had self-discipline and practiced abstention were suspected to be witches and were burned at the stake. In the 17th century all the way through the 19th century anorexia was perceived to be an endocrine disorderRead MoreAnorexia Nervosa And Bulimia Nervosa1122 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAnorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa are a few of the most common disorders struggled with today. Anorexia Nervosa is a condition of the intense fear to gain weight, which results in consistent lack of eating. Bulimia Nervosa, involves frequent episodes of binge eating followed by throwing up because of fear of gaining weight. The mortality rate for anorexia is the highest of all mental disorders yet the genetic factors relating them were not a huge concern to look into. It is easy to think that Read MoreAnorexia Nervosa And Bulimia Nervosa Essay1944 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesobsessed, that they will start to see themselves as larger than they truly are and will take serious measures to accomplish their dream of being thin. This Ã¢â¬Å"thin fantasyÃ¢â¬ develops into eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Although anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are both eating disorders where the person has a misperception of his or her own body and relies on starving/fasting, purging, and excessive exercise to lose weight, these conditions do vary in the way they areRead More Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa Essay1163 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescan suffer. But eating disorders, such as Bulimia Nervosa or Anorexia Nervosa, are generally found in adolescent girls and young women. Anorexia Nervosa affects less than one percent of adolescent girls and young women, whereas, Bulimia Nervosa affects two percent. Approximately five percent of people with Anorexia are mal e. One main alleged cause is the media for their portrayal of young men and women and using unrealistic body shapes. Anorexia Nervosa is generally a preoccupation with thinnessRead MoreBulimia Nervosa and Anorexia Nervosa Essay997 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEating disorders are extremely harmful and rising in prevalence. . The two most common eating disorders are Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa. In this essay, I will compare and contrast these two disorders. This essay will also assess the symptoms, causes, health affects and the most prevalent characteristics of people diagnosed with these two eating disorders. Ã¢â¬Å"Anorexia Nervosa is characterized by self-starvation to avoid obesity. People with this disorder believe they are overweight, evenRead MoreEffects Of Anorexia Nervosa And Bulimia Nervosa1150 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesto eating disorders, the media plays an influential role in the lives of many women. Eating disorders are abnormal and serious disturbances in one s eating habits caused by many factors. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are two well-known eating disorders. The causes of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are difficult to understand but there are a lot of factors that play a role in the development of them. Females are more likely to develop an eating disorder and heightened concern about weightRead MoreBulimia Nervos Anorexia Nervosa2594 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesBulimia Nervosa Bulimia originated in Greece, from the word boulimia, which is defined as extreme hunger (the Bella Vita, 2013). Bulimia falls into the category of being a purge disorder, a lot of the time people that struggle with bulimia may have times where they battle with anorexia nervosa, meaning they restrict themselves from eating. There have been so many cases where people battle with bulimia for years upon years, despite the large variety of treatment there is. There are many perspectivesRead MoreAnorexia Vs. Bulimia Nervosa1200 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAnorexia vs. Bulimia In our culture today, people concerned with the way they look to a high extent, how much they weight, their physical appearances and how to change a body part they do not like. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are eating disorders that affect a personÃ¢â¬â¢s weight to an extreme due to wanting to be thinner when in reality they are already thin to the bone. Both disorders have their similarities and differences from their main obsession of body weight to how they try to loseRead MoreEating Disorders : Anorexia Nervosa And Bulimia Nervosa1303 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdisorder. Out of all the eating disorders, the two most common are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder where people, who are underweight, see themselves as overweight. People with anorexia are obsessed with weighing themselves and eat small portions of a certain type of food. Some people can also have binge-eating disorder by self-vomiting, excessive exercising and extreme dieting. Anorexia is the fear of becoming fat and in order to stay thin, the personRead More Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa Essay examples2484 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesprevalent disorders today are; Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa. Bulimia Nervosa affects 2 to 3 % of all women 15 to 40. Many young women between middle and high school develop often these bad habits to cope with the insecurities developing around them. These two disorders are affecting individuals younger and younger each year. Anorexia generally begins between 12 and 20 and coincides with the beginning and ending of high school. Recent studies have shown that Bulimia tends to affect 5% of all high